Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend International Conference on Diamond and Carbon Materials .

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Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Bingqing Wei

University of Delaware, USA

Keynote: Stretchable Energy Storage Systems Enabled by Engineering Nano structured Carbon

Time : 9:00 - 9:40

Diamond and Carbon 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Bingqing Wei photo
Biography:

Dr. Bingqing (B. Q) Wei is currently a Full Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Delaware. He was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Center for Computation & Technology at Louisiana State University from 2003 to 2007. He had worked as a research scientist at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center from 2000 to 2003. Dr. Wei was a visiting scientist for Max-Planck Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany in 1998 and 1999. From 1992 to 2001, he was a faculty member at Tsinghua University in Beijing, where he received his Bachelor’s degree (1987), M.S (1989), and Ph.D. (1992) in Mechanical Engineering. He is a member of The Materials Research Society (MRS), The Electrochemical Society (ECS), The American Chemical Society (ACS), and The American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME)

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources such as solar energy and wind power are intermittent in nature, reliable electrochemical energy storage systems, mainly including rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors), are purposely explored to promote efficient utilization of these energy sources and are a growing challenge. In the meantime, flexible/stretchable electronics have attracted considerable attention very recent years and have opened the door to many important applications that current, rigid electronics cannot achieve. In order to accommodate these needs, energy source devices must be flexible and stretchable in addition to their high energy and power density, light weight, miniaturization in size, and safety requirements.
The development of stretchable energy storage devices has been one of the most important research areas in recent years and relies mostly on the successful fabrication of electrode materials. Utilizing nanomaterials and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for various energy storage applications such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors and as catalyst supports in fuel cells are under scrutiny because of their improved electrochemical activity, cost effectiveness, environmental benign nature, and promising electrochemical performance. In this presentation, I will report our research efforts in the fabrication of stretchable supercapacitors based on CNT macrofilms, including stretchable double layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, and asymmetric supercapacitors that can stably be operated under both static and dynamic modes.

Keynote Forum

Anirudha V Sumant

Center for Nano scale Materials, Argonne national laboratory, USA

Keynote: Towards developing energy efficient systems based on novel carbon materials

Time : 9:40 - 10:20

Diamond and Carbon 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Anirudha V Sumant photo
Biography:

Anirudha Sumant is a Materials Scientist working at Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National leading the research on nanocarbon materials including CVD-diamond, carbon nanotube and graphene. He has more than 22 years of research experience in the synthesis, characterization and developing applications of carbon based materials. His main research interests include electronic, mechanical and tribological properties of carbon based materials, surface chemistry, micro/ nano-scale tribology, and micro-nanofabrication. He is the author and co-author of more than 100 peer reviewed journal publications, 2 book chapters, winner of four R&D 100 awards, NASA Tech Brief Magazine Award, 2016 TechConnect National Innovation Award, has 16 patents granted, and 15 pending and given numerous invited talks. His research in diamond materials helped in the formation of several start-up companies including NCD Technologies Inc. and AKHAN Semiconductors Inc. He is a member of MRS, STLE and AVS

Abstract:

Minimizing friction and wear-related mechanical failures remains as one of the greatest challenges in today’s moving mechanical systems leading to a search for new materials that can reduce friction and wear related energy losses and the understanding of fundamental mechanisms that control friction. In this context, our work on graphene has shown that this materials properties can be manipulated at the atomic level to achieve exceptionally high wear resistance, as well as well as achievement of superlubricity (or near zero friction) at macroscale  through combined use of graphene and nanodiamonds on sliding surfaces [1]. This discovery presents a paradigm shift in understanding frictional behavior of graphene and other 2D materials and offers a direct pathway for designing energy efficient frictionless tribological systems. In the second part of my talk, I’ll describe our recent work on direct growth of wafer-scale graphene on diamond. The fact that the one atom thick graphene membrane strongly affected by the substrate interactions puts limit on exploiting excellent intrinsic properties of graphene for various applications. Diamond offers multiple unique properties, such as high phonon energy, low trap density, and high thermal conductivity, which make it an ideal substrate for fabricating graphene devices on diamond [2]. We demonstrate a novel process to grow large area single and few layer graphene directly on the diamond thin film deposited on silicon wafer thus eliminating the need for graphene transfer [3].  This approach offers new opportunities for developing graphene based nanoelectronic devices directly on dielectric substrate (diamond/Si) and provides reliable, efficient and low cost alternative as compare to current methods. 

Keynote Forum

Somnath Bhattacharya

University of Winwaterswand, Johannesburg

Keynote: Quantum device prospects of superconducting diamond films

Time : 10:20 - 11:00

Diamond and Carbon 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Somnath Bhattacharya photo
Biography:

Somnath Bhattacharyya is a Professor in the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa focusing on the area of condensed matter physics and nano-electronics. His major interest is in the transport properties of carbon and major achievements include the demonstration of resonant tunnel devices based on amorphous carbon, gigahertz transport in carbon devices, n-type doping of nanocrystalline diamond and developing theoretical models for transport in disordered carbon. His team focuses on the fabrication of the nanoelectronic devices, studying novel electronic properties of nanocrystalline diamond films and carbon superlattice structures at high magnetic fields and high frequencies. His group is also involved in performing theoretical modeling of carbon quantum structures. He is engaged in developing a new infrastructure for a wider range of nanotechnology that will include quantum matter, carbon based microwave detectors and nano-bio-electronics.

Abstract:

Nanostructured semiconducting carbon system, described by as a superlattice-like structure demonstrated its potential in switching device applications based on the quantum tunneling through the insulating carbon layer [1-4]. This switching property can be enhanced further with the association of Josephson’s tunneling between two superconducting carbon (diamond) grains separated by a very thin layer of carbon which holds the structure of the film firmly [5]. The superconducting nanodiamond heterostructures form qubits which can lead to the development of quantum computers provided the effect of disorder present in these structure can be firmly understood. Presently we concentrate on electrical transport properties of heavily boron–doped nanocrystalline diamond films around the superconducting transition temperature measured as a function of magnetic fields and the applied bias current. We demonstrate signature of anomalous negative Hall resistance in these films close to the superconductor-insulator-normal phase transition at low bias currents at zero magnetic field [5]. Current vs. voltage characteristics show signature of Josephson-like behavior which can give rise to a characteristic frequency of several hundred of gigahertz. Signature of spin flipping also shows novel spintronic device applications. We are working towards utilizing the superconducting phenomena in nanodiamond films in making some novel quantum electronic and high speed devices. This project complements our previous work on nitrogen-doped nanodiamond films and related nanostructured carbon devices which showed interesting radio frequency features in the gigahertz range.

  • Nano Carbon Materials
Location: .
Speaker
Biography:

The laboratory of Dr. Gilbert Daniel Nessim at Bar Ilan University (Israel) focuses on the synthesis of nanostructures using state-of-the-art chemical vapor deposition equipment. The scientific focus is to better understand the complex growth mechanisms of these nanostructures, to possibly functionalize them to tune their properties, and to integrate them into innovative devices.

Dr. Nessim joined the faculty of chemistry at Bar Ilan University in 2010 as lecturer and was promoted senior lecturer with tenure in 2014.

He holds a Ph.D in Materials Science and Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), an MBA from INSEAD (France), and Masters in Electrical Engineering from the Politecnico di Milano and from the Ecole Centrale Paris (ECP, within the Erasmus/TIME program). Prior to his Ph.D, Dr. Nessim spent a decade in the high-tech industry and consulting across Europe, USA, and Israel.

 

Abstract:

Despite the massive progress achieved in the growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests on substrate, besides lithographic patterning of the catalyst, little has been done to selectively (locally) control CNT height. Varying process parameters, gases, catalysts, or underlayer materials uniformly affects CNT height over the whole substrate surface.We will show here how we can locally control CNT height, from no CNTs to up to 4X the nominal CNT height from iron catalyst on alumina underlayer by patterning reservoirs or by using overlayers during annealing or growth.

We pioneered the concept of reservoir showing how an iron thin film reservoir placed below the alumina underlayer almost doubles CNT height and how a copper/silver thin film reservoir deactivates the iron catalyst placed above it. We will also show how different thin film reservoir materials can enhance CNT growth by a factor of 4X.

We also pioneered the concept of overlayer, where a copper stencil or bridge placed above the catalyst surface during pre-annealing or during CNT growth deactivates the catalyst. We showed how we could pattern regions with CNTs and without CNTs by simply annealing the sample with a patterned overlayer positioned above its surface. Using nickel overlayers, we obtained a similar result but with a completely different mechanism. We thus synthesized patterned CNT forests using a simple process, without the need for lithography.

We can now combine the overlayer technique with one of the above-mentioned reservoirs (no reservoir, Cu/Ag reservoir, or Fe reservoir) to further modulate CNT growth by offsetting some or all of the growth enhancements achieved using the reservoirs. This modulation of the CNT height is a significant improvement compared to the "CNTs (one height) / no CNTs" patterning that has been achieved using lithography of the catalyst, and moves us closer to building 3D architectures of CNTs.

  • Carbon materials in energy
Location: .

Session Introduction

Ruchi Gakhar

University of Wisconsin, USA

Title: Characterization of graphite components of FHR design
Speaker
Biography:

Ruchi Gakhar is a Postdoctoral research associate at UW Madison in the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics. She received her PhD in materials Science from University of Nevada, Reno in Decemeber 2015. She also holds an undergraduate and master's degree in chemistry and an additional master's in nanotechnology. During her PhD, she worked on designing of new, affordable materials to harness solar energy for clean energy production. She has published 15 journal articles and a book chapter so far.Ruchi has received several awards for academic excellence, including 2016 Nevada Regents' Scholar Award. At UW Madison, she is involved in investigating materials aspects of advanced nuclear reactor design – Fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR).

Abstract:

Two types of graphite used in the core design of Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (FHR) are Graphite Matrix A3 and Nuclear Grade IG110. Matrix A3 forms the structural component for the fuel kernels, while IG110 forms the reflector blocks and some of the internal core components[1]. Graphite forms an integral component of this design because it contributes to the structural integrity of the reactor as well as the pores of the graphite are considered as the main trapping site for the tritium produced in the coolant salt [2], [3]. Matrix A3 graphite which forms fuel pebble contains fission product that are produced during nuclear operation. In addition, the salt coolant or the corrosion products might intrude through the surface into the pores of the graphite [4]–[6]. Considering these attributes, the microstructure characterization of two grades of graphite is important in developing knowledge of characteristics of graphite under FHR operating conditions. The microstructural differences between A-3 and IG-110 are attributed to the differences in the raw materials and the heat treatment temperature during manufacturing [7]. The present study focuses on the microstructure examinationof two types of graphite components using X-ray Diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, BET analysis, Mercury porosimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques. The lattice parameters, crystallite size (parallel and perpendicular to the basal plane), anisotropy and degree of graphitization estimated based on X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra for both IG-110 and Matrix A3 graphite, will be discussed. The similarities and differences in microstructural characteristics between the two grades of graphite as obtained using the XRD and Raman spectroscopy results will be presented and the factors causing such differences will be discussed

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Bingqing (B. Q) Wei is currently a Full Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Delaware. He was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Center for Computation & Technology at Louisiana State University from 2003 to 2007. He had worked as a research scientist at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center from 2000 to 2003. Dr. Wei was a visiting scientist for Max-Planck Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany in 1998 and 1999. From 1992 to 2001, he was a faculty member at Tsinghua University in Beijing, where he received his Bachelor’s degree (1987), M.S (1989), and Ph.D. (1992) in Mechanical Engineering. He is a member of The Materials Research Society (MRS), The Electrochemical Society (ECS), The American Chemical Society (ACS), and The American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME)

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources such as solar energy and wind power are intermittent in nature, reliable electrochemical energy storage systems, mainly including rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors (supercapacitors), are purposely explored to promote efficient utilization of these energy sources and are a growing challenge. In the meantime, flexible/stretchable electronics have attracted considerable attention very recent years and have opened the door to many important applications that current, rigid electronics cannot achieve. In order to accommodate these needs, energy source devices must be flexible and stretchable in addition to their high energy and power density, light weight, miniaturization in size, and safety requirements.
The development of stretchable energy storage devices has been one of the most important research areas in recent years and relies mostly on the successful fabrication of electrode materials. Utilizing nanomaterials and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for various energy storage applications such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors and as catalyst supports in fuel cells are under scrutiny because of their improved electrochemical activity, cost effectiveness, environmental benign nature, and promising electrochemical performance. In this presentation, I will report our research efforts in the fabrication of stretchable supercapacitors based on CNT macrofilms, including stretchable double layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, and asymmetric supercapacitors that can stably be operated under both static and dynamic modes.

  • Applications of carbon nanotubes
Location: .

Session Introduction

Pinar Camurlu

Akdeniz University, Turkey

Title: Fabrication of Electroactive Nanofibers
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Camurlu received her B.Sc. (1999), M.Sc (2001) and Ph.D. (2006) degrees from Department of Chemistry at Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. Dr. Camurlu has been working in Department of Chemistry at Akdeniz University (Antalya, Turkey) since 2007. Her research is focused on the design and synthesis of functional conjugated polymers and their applications such as; electrochromic devices, light emitting diodes, biosensors. She has published more than 45 papers in SCI journals and took part as a co-author for three international scientific book chapters.

Abstract:

Electroactive nanofibers, which are highly promising for sensor applications, have been receiving great attention due to their high electrical conductivity, surface area and porosity. Electrospinning has become one of the leading approaches for preparation of polymer nanofibers, owing to its superior attributes such as being simple, fast and relatively cheap. Focus of this study is to develop electroactive nanofibers based on conducting polymers which contain carbon nanotube (CNT). 

The electroactive nanofibers, which were constituted from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), CNT and PEDOT, were fabricated by combining electrospinning and chemical vapor polymerization methods. The nanofiber mats were prepared by electrospinning of a PAN and CNT mixture in DMF. Later, these mats were subjected chemical vapor polymerization of EDOT in the presence of FeCl3. The resultant electroactive nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR, CV and four point probe conductivity studies. The collective results have shown that the prepared mats contain conducting, homogeneous, electroactive PEDOT coatings on the surface of the PAN/CNT nanofibers, which are expected to be promising candidates for the fabrication of amperometric biosensors.

Speaker
Biography:

H. Erdem Çamurlu has completed his PhD in 2006 from Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. He has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (unalloyed) matrix composites were produced by hot pressing powder metallurgical technique. Composites containing 0.25 – 3 wt.% CNT were obtained. Mixing was performed both by conventional ball milling (CBM) and high energy ball milling (HEBM). In CBM, which was performed solely for mixing purposes, zirconia balls having 2 mm diameter were used and milling was conducted for 15 minutes. In HEBM, a Retsch PM100 unit with tungsten carbide balls of 5 mm diameter was utilized, where mixing and grinding was conducted for 90 minutes at 150 rpm under argon atmosphere.

Hot pressing of the composites was performed at 600 oC for 30 minutes. Densities of the obtained composites were over 97% of theoretical.

In the microstructure of the composites obtained by CBM, carbon nanotubes were in the form of agglomerates and clusters. Thus, it was seen that conventional mixing was not sufficient for a good dispersion of CNT in Al. Hardness values were about 32.5 HB10 and did not change with the addition of CNT. 3 point bending strength of unreinforced sample was 295 MPa. There was a slight decrease in the strength and strain with increasing CNT content.In the composites obtained by HEBM, CNTs were seen to be well dispersed in the microstructure of the composites. Hardness was seen to be higher, as a result of the application of HEBM instead of CBM. Hardness of unreinforced Al increased to 42.5 HB10. Hardness of the composite containing 3 wt.% CNT reached a hardness value of 81.5 HB10. 3 point bending strength values were about 320 MPa and were not affected by the addition of CNT. Strain values of the composites were lower, as compared to unreinforced sample. Authors are grateful to Akdeniz University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit for supporting this project (FAY-2015-304).